Radiographic testing

Advantages

Limitations

Permanent record

Health hazard. Safety (important)

Good for sizing non-planar defects/ flaws

Classified workers, medicals required

Can be used on all materials

Sensitive to defect orientation

Direct image of defect/flaws

Not good for planar defect detection

Real-time imaging

Limited ability to detect fine cracks

Can be positioned inside pipe (productivity)

Access to both sides required

Very good thickness penetration

Skilled interpretation required

No power required with gamma

Relatively slow

High capital outlay and running costs Isotopes have a half-life (cost)

Dye Penetrant Testing

Advantages

Limitations

All non porous materials

Will only detect defects open to the surface

Portable

Requires careful space preparation

Applicable to small parts with complex geometry

Not applicable to porous surfaces

Simple

Temperature dependent

Inexpensive

Cannot retest indefinitely

Sensitive

Potentially hazardous chemicals

Relatively low skill level (easy to interpret)

No permanent record

Time lapse between application and results

Messy